金閣寺 PDF/EPUB ↠ Paperback


  • Paperback
  • 274 pages
  • 金閣寺
  • Yukio Mishima
  • Turkish
  • 02 April 2015

10 thoughts on “金閣寺

  1. Adam Dalva Adam Dalva says:

    I walked back and forth in front of the Nishijin police station It was evening and several of the windows were brightly lit I noticed a police detective hurrying into the building He was wearing an open neck shirt and was carrying a briefcase No one paid any attention too me No one had paid any attention to me during the past twenty years and under present conditions this was bound to continue Under present conditions I was still a person of no importance In this country of Japan there were people by the million by the tens of millions who were tucked away in corners and to whom no one paid any attention I still belonged to their ranks The world felt not the slightest concern as to whether these people lived or died and for this reason there was something reassuring about themAn odd intriguing read one that reminded me of Dostoevsky or Camus in that it seemed as much a parable as a narrative I won't spoil the plot but Mishima cannily took a real event changed little and made it a psychological profile of a young man in turmoil The lead a stuttering acolyte at a temple in Kyoto is unlikable after a childhood trauma he becomes hopelessly obsessed with the Temple of the Golden Pavilion The book presents him with various interlocutors and sexual temptations all of which lead to an inevitable crescendoWhat frightened me what made me pull the paragraph above is the insight that Mishima has into the mind of the young domestic terrorist Mizoguchi the lead is a primordial version of an incel and his cool rationalization of the inexplicable is chilling Though the novel drags through the occasional parable and has a preposterous coincidence at its core a minor character keeps appearing in different subplots with no real explanation it is an accomplishment


  2. Michael Finocchiaro Michael Finocchiaro says:

    This story by Mishima is a beautiful tale about obsession and how it destroys the bearer It is a fable loosely based on the true story of the burning of the Kinka kuji temple in Kyoto I visited it once it is absolutely sublime A must read for entering into the awesome universe of Mishima's writing


  3. Paquita Maria Sanchez Paquita Maria Sanchez says:

    Oh yes you do so want to read this novel I would mark the following synopsis as a spoiler but all is revealed in the introduction and the events that inspired the book are about as big a mystery for the Japanese as what happened to the Titanic is to Westerners anyway so don't go getting all sore with me like I'm maliciously ruining all your fun We are being multicultural and pretending we already knew about this major historical event before hearing of and reading Mishima's novel Who's with me? Then proceedMizoguchi Zen acolyte and aspiring spiritual figurehead of the centuries old Golden Temple in Kyoto develops a pathological reverence for and inevitable hatred of his place of worship Even well before Mizoguchi arrives in Kyoto he positions the Golden Temple in his mind as his only gauge of beauty and divinity in the world Not just aesthetic beauty either; importantly the temple represents the potential for spiritual beauty and meaning both his own and that of othersbut mostly his own Mizoguchi is spiritually void arguably sociopathic and has a major chip on his shoulder about women He has seen some shit man his mother during his childhood a neighborhood girl during his preteen years and an elusive woman during his later teenage years all serve to twist and defile his sexual development his views concerning the female species as a whole and rewire his desires in such a way that they become insurmountable and hallucinatory Added to his troubles he has a painful speech impediment and a temperament generally divorced from the everyday social capabilities of your average red blooded male This paragraph could go on for days if I continued to attempt to fully explain his psychology so I will just try and wrap things up and save the goods for your future reading experience After many a twisted cavern is transpassed in his mind after the Golden Temple's glory has eclipsed that of all else in his life Mizoguchi decides it's time to get all Mark David Chapman on it He must destroy it He will be cleansed he will be remembered the world will be balanced againNever mind the other elements of Mizoguchi's obsession one of the most exuisitely designed aspects of the novel is his rationalization process Mishima pits Zen Buddhism against itself selectively interpreting the scripture in a way that presents Mizoguchi at least to himself as enlightened than his fellow practitioners and fully justified in his actions It's the sand mandala argument beauty is temporary as is everything but suffering The temple is an object of great beauty which has stood in disharmony with this Buddhist doctrine for far too long and Mizoguchi must make right with the world by ridding it of this almost 600 year old mockeryAll this and yet that isn't even the best part The prose the prose oh my I will leave it for you to discover Read some uotes and you will see what I mean I knew from my previous experience with Mishima The Sailor Who Fell from Grace with the Sea that the man could deliver a mean inner dialogue that his paragraphs were like finely crafted trapsdark pits and that he was clearly a genius of style That book sort of fell apart for me at the end but I still read the majority of it with a gasp trapped in my throat What a gifted fascinating man A plea please stop killing yourselves gifted fascinating men Fortunately his catalog is enormous and I will probably never read it in its entirety If you decide to try though I suggest you start hereThe pavilion itself was in fact so treasured among others of course that the Allied forces wouldn't even touch Kyoto which should say something; they obviously had very few ualms about large scale jaw dropping destruction


  4. Steven Godin Steven Godin says:

    I have twice in the past tried to read Mishima firstly 'Spring Snow' which at the time for what ever reason just couldn't seem to get into it although will definitely return there in due course Secondly had a go at 'The Sailor Who Fell From Grace With The Sea' but didn't like his nihilistic portrayal of youth The Temple of the Golden Pavilion was far accessible and enticing but still retained a serious and disturbing tone Based on this evidence Mishima was somebody that held traditional Japanese religion very highly and reading through this it was almost impossible to shake off the though of his ritual suicide and if I had to pick one key word that best describes this work that would be 'sacrifice'Following the footsteps of protagonist Mizoguchi who enters into the Buddhist priesthood gives a compulsive insight to a life of strict code and dedication After witnessing the radiance of a famous temple in Kyoto with his dying Father Mizoguchi becomes transfixed and believes his future is set in stone regarding his ambitions Turning against his Mother for reasons of sexual deviation he becomes or less a lonerafter losing his good friend Tsurukawa he drifts through his life and education giving himself to the temple he would see a change in his person with one true focus that left me shocked stunned and sorrowfulOf all the Japanese writer's I have come across so far Mishima is probably the best in terms of depth the narrative here is precise and absorbing and as mentioned before this was a great place to start for a first timer You really get a sense of this world and as a westerner reading of the east there is always something educational to pick up on The temple itself feels just as much alive as all those withinSo it would come as no surprise that the ending didn't sit well with me how could a place of such historical significance be treated in this way? I am sure there is some sort of deeper meaning to the ending but by this time I had given up caring as the actions of Mizoguchi where just far too self centered and disrespectful to his ancestors Also Mishima's perception of women in this novel were not exactly doing them any favours either But his writing I strongly admire and will no doubt read of his work beautifully descriptive but also savagely doom laden


  5. Jimmy Jimmy says:

    On 1 July 1950 during the Allied Occupation of Japan a Buddhist monk by the name of Yoken Hayashi set fire to the Kinkaku ji or as it is known in English ‘The Temple of the Golden Pavilion’ Yoken was a man of little conseuence; a character in history who had he not committed such an acrimonious act would not have been remembered today He suffered from a debilitating stutter and was considered ugly by many of his peers It is often conjectured that Yoken was either schizophrenic or suffered from some degree of mental illness And yet some observers such as the Japanese literary scholar Donald Keene think that Yoken’s motives to destroy the Kinkaku ji were inspired by feelings of indignation regarding the commercialization of Buddhist temples during the Occupation The only known insight that Yoken has offered on his crime was “ I do not believe that I have done anything wrong It is said that a national treasure has been burned but that seems or less meaningless” To this day his true motives cease to be completely understood Some years later the iconoclastic Japanese novelist Mishima Yukio researched the burning of the Kinkaku ji using it as source material for a deeply philosophical novel entitled The Temple of the Golden PavilionThe Kinkaku ji – its proper name was the Rokuon ji – is a by product of Muromachi culture and was originally a villa built by the statesman Saoinji Kintsune It was subseuently purchased by Ashikaga Yoshimitsu After the death of Yoshimitsu what was once intended as a relaxing place to escape the pressures of the administrative duties of the Shogunate was converted into a Zen Buddhist temple The particular sect of Buddhism practiced was Rinzai Buddhism which focuses on meditation and koans Japanese riddles; it is one of the three main sects of Zen Buddhism in Japan It was in this building that Yoken trained to become a Zen priest as his father had Bathed in the luster of its gold covering embodying aspects of Chinese style architecture and Heian aesthetics this three storied double roofed structure located at the edge of a pond surrounded by lush forestry is truly an image of cultural beauty In developing the character of Mizoguchi who is based on Yoken Mishima wanted to create a figure whose personal deformities – his stutter and his ugliness – provoke an obsession with a symbol of pure beauty Early in the novel Mizoguchi’s fascination with the Kinkaku ji is inspired by what he sees as its permanence in a world full of death and constant decay “I knew and believed that amid all the changes of the world The Golden Temple remained there safe and immutable” Against the historical backdrop of the Pacific War Mizoguchi sees a good deal of death around him Uiko a local girl he knew in Maizuru is killed by the Kempeitai Japanese military police for sleeping with a deserter his father passes as well as his close friend Tsurukawa later revealed to be a suicide and he witnesses the devastation reaped by the Pacific War specifically the air raids throughout Japan Kyoto where the Kinkaku ji is located was an exception during this time During the strategic aerial bombings orchestrated by Curtis Lemay Secretary of War Henry Stimson’s one reuest was that Kyoto not be destroyed as it was the cultural heart of the Japan and most notably its former Imperial capital; the focus was on the industrialized areas such as Tokyo and Osaka It is this uality of immutability that Mizoguchi sees in the Kinkaku ji that eventually inspires feelings of hatred Initially he decides to burn down the temple because he assumes that it will eventually be destroyed as many lives around him have but the resilience of this ancient structure is what motivates him into actionAnd ultimately action not words is what is truly important to both Mizoguchi and Mishima Later in the novel Mizoguchi befriends a fellow deformed student with ‘clubbed feet’ named Kashiwagi He admires Kashiwagi because as he saw it “I understood that he disliked lasting beauty His likings were limited to things such as music which vanished instantly or flower arrangements which faded in a matter of days; he loathed architecture and literature” Though it has been commented on before it’s tempting here to draw the ultimate artistic parallel that between Yoken’s act of burning down the Kinkaku ji and Mishima’s attempted coup d’etat in 1970 resulting in his suicideIn this light the uestion becomes one of whether the dramatic actions of these men were motivated by political realities or it was because both of them were so disturbed by the impermanent nature of beauty in the real world that they felt the need to destroy it in order to free themselves from the oppressive philosophical weight of its transient essence Considering his reverence for the Heian aesthetic Buddhism and Japanese nationalism it’s likely that Mishima saw in Yoken an act of protest against the increasing modernity prevalent in Japanese culture and social life after the war In spite of Mishima’s apparent fondness for European literature and philosophy as well as his interest in American culture he saw Japan’s situation as relatively hopeless In the years leading up to his death he confided in his close friend the Japanese film scholar Donald Richie that for Japan “there is nothing to save” This leads Richie to speculate on Mishima’s motives for his suicide “When I learned of his suicide that is what I first remembered that he already knew that there was nothing to save His may have been a political statement an aesthetic statement but it was also a despairing personal statement” This last line is the most striking “a despairing personal statement” It’s uestionable that Yoken’s character was as deeply philosophical as he is portrayed by Mishima Rather in The Temple of the Golden Pavilion Mizoguchi comes off as a literary mouthpiece for Mishima’s thematic obsession with the fleeting nature of existence This melancholy preoccupation with the transient nature of life was first articulated with precision by the 18th century philosopher and literary critic Motoori Norinaga whose interpretation of the Heian period classic The Tale of Genji viewed the book in the context of mono no aware or “ a sensitivity to things This same thematic concept one seemingly poetic and artistic than political is also embodied in Mishima’s rendition of the famous Noh play Sotoba Komachi which is of a mono no aware take on femininity In his book on Noh theater William T Vollmann opines that “Mishima continually implies that the beauty of femininity’s mask is not merely delusory but dangerous distracting voracious the ruination of male energy Again there is a clearly defined thematic concern with aging and transience in Mishima’s take on the destruction and passing of beauty; this time on the grotesue Noh figure of Komachi Mishima was also very fond of Lady Murasaki’s classic tale of the “shining prince” The Temple of the Golden Pavilion is a rich complicated novel as are many of Mishima’s other books While the theme of mono no aware is predominant throughout this fictional account of a crazed Buddhist acolyte and his relatively inscrutable actions there are metaphysical Aristotelian musings; Mizoguchi’s distinction between the world of words that creates his inner world and the outer world of reality The hypocrisy of Zen Buddhism is called into uestion the Superior's courting of a geisha which is reminiscent of the character of Redshirt in Natsume Soseki’s Botchan And above all else a Japan that was experiencing the American influence of the military postwar poverty and a diminishing faith in the kokutai after Emperor Hirohito was renounced his divinity While all of these historical details add depth to the story of a man who many thought was insane if not just painfully dull the most powerful theme is the hatred of beautiful things This hatred and cruelty as Mizoguchi describes it are again inspired by the unattainable nature of beauty As Mizoguchi declares in conversation with Kashiwagi right before he’s about to finally put his words into action and tap into that “outer reality” “Beauty beautiful things’ I continued ‘those are my most deadly enemies And for Mishima this was also true His life in its many guises and forms was a continuous pursuit of and battle with the transient essence of beauty Whether he found it in the literary classics of Japan ancient temples femininity or the nationalistic fervor of the kokutai the profound effect that beauty had on Mishima’s life in the end made living unbearable


  6. Gabrielle Gabrielle says:

    4 and a half stars rounded upIn 1950 a young monk set the beautiful Kinkaku Ji or Golden Pavilion on fire This acolyte was arrested but ultimately released as he was declared mentally ill This act of arson shocked Japan deeply as the building was a protected national monument and special instructions had even been given so that it not be damaged during the War and occupation Knowing what we know about Mishima’s politics and interests I’m not surprised that the event fascinated him he researched the topic in great details going as far as visiting the young monk during his imprisonment His fictionalization of the monk’s life and ultimate criminal act is not a simple retelling It is a deeply troubling character study and Mishima uses the character of Mizogushi to express his own thoughts about his country’s history his views on Rinzai Zen love and sex but especially the role of beauty in our temporary existenceI say it’s a troubling character study because while there was no official word for them back then if he lived today we would certainly call Mizogushi an incel A boyhood trauma about his mother’s sexuality aggravates the young boy’s already painful stutter and taints his perception of women and of sex Because of his speech impediment he is mercilessly bullied by his schoolmates and learning to become unnoticeable becomes the only defence mechanism this poor man has The years of isolation and distrust builds up into massive resentment and warps his understanding of the Buddhist teachings he receives as an acolyte two famous koans are often discussed in rather troubling ways No summary can aptly do justice to the intricate work done by Mishima to explore the reasoning and motivations leading the troubled young man to destroy what he sees as the most beautiful thing in the worldWhen Mizogushi develops a friendship with – and a certain admiration for – Kashiwagi it paints a unsettling picture of how easily seduced one can be by what Mishima elouently describes as the golden sheen of evil It is also soon after making that toxic friendship that his obsession with the Temple takes an even sinister turn But it is also clear that while Kashiwagi fans the flames pun intended on the flaws of Mizogushi's character he is not responsible for his friends actions In fact Mishima is very careful to illustrate the many different factors that play in making Mizogushi who and what he isMizogushi’s act would be called domestic terrorism in today’s parlance Considering current events it can be chilling to realize how well Mishima captured the increasingly disturbed state of mind of his protagonist The alienation and rejection experienced by Mizogushi is described with great skill as is the process through which this sense of otherness corrupts him Mishima explores the philosophical spiritual and political ideas that fuel Mizogushi’s actions but are they really convictions on his part or simply a justification with which he conceals his anger and feelings of betrayal? Nihilism and suicidal ideation are common through Mishima’s work which given the way he chose to end his life is not really a surprise Some reviewers have drawn parallels between Mishima and Dostoyevsky my favourite is this one who is coincidentally next on my reading list; I’m very curious to read “Crime and Punishment” this week and see if I agree with the comparison While this is less poetic than Spring Snow it's a riveting book because while you already know what happens at the end the journey there is both fascinating and repulsiveAs I read “The Temple of the Golden Pavilion” there was a lot of buzz about the new “Joker” movie all over my various feeds; the movie isn’t even out yet but it's already very divisive and controversial as audiences can’t seem to figure out if they are supposed to sympathize with an incel turned violent criminal or if they should despise him I think it’s actually very interesting; this sort of ambiguity about how you should feel towards repugnant characters is exactly what Mishima did with this book and what Nabokov did with Humbert in “Lolita” come to think of it and I feel like challenging readers or movie goers to mull over this ambiguity is important I’m beginning to think that at the end of the day it doesn’t matter how you feel about a character like Mizogushi or the Joker it only matters that you wrestle with that feeling and that you reflect on the fact that people like that do not happen in a vacuum


  7. Mizuki Mizuki says:

    Pre review When the Golden Temple got bombed perhaps the phoenix statue at the rooftop would be awakened as a real undying phoenix and rose from the flame and the ashesPeace was kept when death and violence were on display publicly and regularly So the one thing that should be made public properly is execution Actually I read the Taiwanese translation of the story so the above uotes are not from the English translationRating 35 starsI think the first half of the novel is really brilliant and it can easily win 4 or 5 stars The author Yukio Mishima wrote in a slightly smei autobiographical way a twisted coming of age story and this coming of age story is based on a real incident of a young monk's burning of Temple of the Golden Pavilion in the post WWII eraHowever near the ending part and the narration about the MC doing damages to his own life starts to drag that's why the rating has been loweredWhat I really like about the story is the description of the young protagonist's reaction on Japan's defeat in WWII his inferior complex due to his physical disability and a 'weak unimpressive' body I can envision Mishima applying his own thoughts and emotion on these parts and his obsession with the shining perfection which is the Temple of the Golden PavilionIn the few Mr Mishima's novels that I'd read there are always an obsession with beauty and perfection and death love and betrayal nihility and destruction etc Without those elements The Temple of the Golden Pavilion would simply fall apart as a novel Plus I really like how Mr Mishima described his young MC's sense of alienation and being rejected by the normal world I can imagine this sense of alienation is relied to Mr Misima being a homosexual young man growing up in the WWII Japan where the existence of homosexuality or other forms of sexual deviance and desires were barely even acknowledged I've never been to the real life Temple of the Golden Pavilion before but I'd been to the Temple of the Silver Pavilion aka Jishō ji or Ginkaku ji during my visit to KyotoLink Link


  8. Eddie Watkins Eddie Watkins says:

    To make one Mishima take one dehydrated Dostoevsky; remove all hair and whiskers go all the way give old Dos a full Brazilian then polish to a steely sheen; carefully remove the heart and brain; take the heart between both hands and sueeze using occult Buddhist techniues until the heart’s emotional essence is drop by drop converted into intellectual conceits; collect these drops and add to brain; replace sueezed out Dostoevsky heart with something pitiless; rehydrate with fanaticism and disembodied compassion and send it on its way through a convoluted and deterministic universe This recipe good for only one side of Mishima as he appears to have been a man who even as he refined his mind and body to a single point of final intensity kept his myriad contradictions in solution to serve as goad and fuel for that single minded intensity The I think about it the less sense the recipe makes as in even this one aspects of mercurial Mishima have already slipped through its measurements and proportions so scrap the recipe but let its memory linger in the mind as a kind of partial ghost image an echo of a meaning that never uite was; which is appropriate as Mishima was at times as in this book an anti intellectual intellectual a man for whom words thoughts ideas were thoroughly plastic and manipulable able to fill out and justify any cockamamie idea and so in a way meaningless though still of course powerful enough to exert an inexpugnable sway What does one do when faced with such an intellectual dilemma? Burn what is perceived as the wellspring of intellectual aesthetic permanence down to the ground so as to directly access the infinite root network of instinctual reality if only for a moment Mishima must have delighted in the idea of writing this book as working from an existing true story fulfilled his needs even at the meta level of a determined world of fate as the driving force even as his natural intensity and intellectual fire attempted to transcend the actual flames and convoluted messiness of this world to present a fleeting image of perfection as a glance through an infinitely faceted crystal of an apotheosis a single moment that briefly encapsulates a hydra headed life


  9. Lars Jerlach Lars Jerlach says:

    The Temple of the Golden Pavilion traces the curious relationship between a young stuttering priest named Mizoguchi and the Golden Pavilion from the time when his father first introduces him to the serene and incomparable beauty of the temple to the moment when having finally destroyed it he smokes a cigarette in an almost post coital act of defiance Until this last dramatic act the Golden Pavilion has dominated MIzugushi’s life constantly changing its meaning in his confused but charged mind from a reassuring foundation for his belief to a menacing authority that lays over him like a subjugating presence and he finally comes to the conclusion that only by destroying the pavilion can he truly free himself from its eternal grip From the beginning of the novel when Mizogushi as a young boy lying next to his dying dad witnesses his mother’s infidelity the novel uickly evolves into a philosophical meditation on the ualities of anger forgiveness attraction repulsion and of the all encompassing uestion of the significance and standard of external and internal beauty One of the rather interesting strategic elements in the narrative is that it’s particularly hard to feel compassion for Mizogushi who’s portrayed as a self obsessed reticent and somewhat cruel individual Mishima has crafted his protagonist’s narrative voice extremely well and although it’s sometimes hard to agree with his choices they all seem to make sense within his obsessive reality The novel is philosophically rich and some of the most fundamental uestions that we ask ourselves are succinctly addressed in the narrative How beauty can exist in a world of evil how a single moment like the physical placement of a single blade of grass can be understood contrasted against the cosmic physical world and ultimately how we constantly seek to understand ourselvesThe book is wonderfully written the prose is inspired and evocative and I particularly appreciate the underlying tone of ineradicable despair even when objects of great beauty is described


  10. Meike Meike says:

    English The Temple Of The Golden PavilionThis classic novel is based on a real incident In 1950 an aspiring Buddhist monk set fire to the title giving Golden Pavilion a 14th century Zen temple in Kyoto Mishima was fascinated by the story of the young criminal who at the trial stated that he wanted to destroy the building because of its beauty the author whose own obsession with beauty is reflected throughout his works even visited the arsonist in prison while working on the fictionalization of these events The outcome is an intriguing tour de force rendered from the perspective of a stuttering neurotic young narrator who projects his own needs on a sacred temple and gets lost in a mental maelstrom of his own making As we follow our protagonist from his childhood through his time at university and as an acolyte witnessing how he is easily manipulated and severed from his surroundings by his stilted emotions and urge to gain power control the complex psychological dynamics reflect many themes that are typical for Mishima Apart from beauty the text ponders youth sex traditional Japanese values loyalty nihilism Westernization dignity and as if this was a Mishima bingo suicide While the atmosphere of the story oscillates between mania and depression it becomes and claustrophobic Many aspects of the book appear like Zen riddles so not only those which actually are Zen riddles and it's utterly absorbing This novel is a philosophical psychogram of a person and a country The German translation by the wonderful Ursula Gräfe is once again superb


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金閣寺[BOOKS] ⚦ 金閣寺 ✫ Yukio Mishima – Thomashillier.co.uk Bu gizemli altın kuş ne gündoğumunda ötüyor ne kanat çırpıyordu kendinin bir kuş olduğunu unuttuğuna kuşku yoktu Ancak onun uçmuyor olduğunu düşünmek de yanlıştı aslında Diğer k Bu gizemli altın kuş ne gündoğumunda ötüyor ne kanat çırpıyordu kendinin bir kuş olduğunu unuttuğuna kuşku yoktu Ancak onun uçmuyor olduğunu düşünmek de yanlıştı aslında Diğer kuşlar gökyüzünde uçarken bu kırmızı altından Anka kuşu parlayan kanatlarını açmış sonsuza dek zamanın içinde uçmaktaydı Zaman onun kanatlarına çarpıyordu Kanatlarına çarpıp geri süzülüyorduKekeme olduğu için hayatı boyunca yalnızlık çeken Mizoguçi babasının ölümünden sonra Altın Tapınak’ın başkeşişine emanet edilirTapınağın güzelliğini bir saplantı haline getiren Mizoguçi’nin bu güzelliğe sahip olma tutkusu onu yıkıcı bir yola sürükleyecektirAli Volkan Erdemir’in güzel çevirisiyle Türkçeye kazandırılan Altın Köşk Tapınağı ’lerde yaşanan gerçek bir olayı konu alıyor Şiirsel üslubu ve dramatik sahneleriyle dünya edebiyatına damgasını vuran Mişima’nın sık sık ele aldığı şiddet tutku din ve tarih gibi konular bu romanda kusursuzca harmanlanıyor.


About the Author: Yukio Mishima

Yukio Mishima 三島 由紀夫 was born in Tokyo in He graduated from Tokyo Imperial University’s School of Jurisprudence in His first published book The Forest in Full Bloom appeared in and he established himself as a major author with Confessions of a Mask From then until his death he continued to publish novels short stories and plays each year His crowning achievement th.