The Civil War PDF ä The Civil PDF/EPUB ²


The Civil War [Reading] ➶ The Civil War By Gaius Julius Caesar – Thomashillier.co.uk The Civil War is Julius Caesar s personal account of his war with Pompey the Great the war which destroyed the five hundred year old Roman Republic Caesar the victor became Caesar the dictator In thre The Civil War is Julius Caesar s personal account of The Civil PDF/EPUB ² his war with Pompey the Great the war which destroyed the five hundred year old Roman Republic Caesar the victor became Caesar the dictator In three short books, Caesar describes how, in order to defend his dignitas honour , and the libertas freedom of both himself and the Roman people, he marched on Rome, and defeated the forces of Pompey and the Senate in Italy, Spain, and Greece Caesar s commentaries, written in famously simple prose, with the distinctive use of the third person, offer a unique opportunity to read the victor s version of events.

    The Civil War PDF ä The Civil PDF/EPUB ² the dictator In three short books, Caesar describes how, in order to defend his dignitas honour , and the libertas freedom of both himself and the Roman people, he marched on Rome, and defeated the forces of Pompey and the Senate in Italy, Spain, and Greece Caesar s commentaries, written in famously simple prose, with the distinctive use of the third person, offer a unique opportunity to read the victor s version of events."/>
  • Paperback
  • 224 pages
  • The Civil War
  • Gaius Julius Caesar
  • English
  • 26 March 2017
  • 0760768943

About the Author: Gaius Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar July BC March The Civil PDF/EPUB ² BC , known as Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician, general, and notable author of Latin prose He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman EmpireIn BC, Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey formed a political alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years Their attempts to amass power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero Caesar s victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by BC, extended Rome s territory to the English Channel and the Rhine Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both the Channel and the Rhine, when he built a bridge across the Rhine and crossed the Channel to invade BritainThese achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in BC With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome Caesar refused the order, and instead marked his defiance in BC by crossing the Rubicon with the th Legion, leaving his province and illegally entering Roman Italy under arms Civil war resulted, and Caesar s victory in the war put him in an unrivalled position of power and influenceAfter assuming control of government, Caesar began a programme of social and governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed dictator in perpetuity , giving him additional authority But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March March BC, Caesar was assassinated by a group of rebellious senators led by Marcus Junius Brutus A new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never fully restored Caesar s adopted heir Octavian, later known as Augustus, rose to sole power after defeating his opponents in the civil war Octavian set about solidifying his power, and the era of the Roman Empire beganMuch of Caesar s life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in historyDuring his lifetime, Caesar was regarded as one of the best orators and prose authors in Latin even Cicero spoke highly of Caesar s rhetoric and style Only Caesar s war commentaries have survived A few sentences from other works are quoted by other authors Among his lost works are his funeral oration for his paternal aunt Julia and his Anticato, a document written to defame Cato in response to Cicero s published praise Poems by Julius Caesar are also mentioned in ancient sources.



10 thoughts on “The Civil War

  1. Jan-Maat Jan-Maat says:

    Asterix led me to The Gallic War and from the conquest of Gaul I tumbled into The Civil War As it happened so did Caesar so that made two of us.This volume contains Caesar s commentary on the Civil War and three continuations The conflict opens with Caesar descending into Italy with his veteran forces, Pompey flees Italy with some levies to Greece Caesar departs to Spain where he defeats Pompey s forces there and returns to Italy This takes about a year Caesar crosses to Greece, but Pompey Asterix led me to The Gallic War and from the conquest of Gaul I tumbled into The Civil War As it happened so did Caesar so that made two of us.This volume contains Caesar s commentary on the Civil War and three continuations The conflict opens with Caesar descending into Italy with his veteran forces, Pompey flees Italy with some levies to Greece Caesar departs to Spain where he defeats Pompey s forces there and returns to Italy This takes about a year Caesar crosses to Greece, but Pompey s forces have naval superiority and interrupt Caesar s troop movements Pompey amassed a sizeable army but doesn t takes the initiative and eventually Caesar is able to get the rest of his forces over to Greece He tries to trap Pompey by having a fortified line dug round his position a line which runs for a total of fifteen miles p128 , Pompey eventually breaks out, the two fight a battle in northern Greece at Pharsalus at which Pompey is completely defeated Pompey flees, eventually ending up in Egypt where he is decapitated by soldiers of Ptolemy XIII Caesar in pursuit with a small number of troops turns up, seizes Ptolemy XIII which unsurprisingly brings him into conflict with the Ptolemaic army.At this point Caesar s narrative ends and from here on there are three continuations apparently written by three different authors the Alexandrine War which deals with the resolution of the conflict in Egypt, the African War in which Caesar pursues and eventually defeats Scipo and Cato at Thaspus in north Africa and the Spanish War in which Caesar battles Pompey s sons and their army eventually defeating them at the battle of Munda.The Gallic War and the Civil War commentaries make an interesting pairing Clemency is suddenly dominant in this book Caesar wore the velvet glove in Gaul, but the iron fist was always apparent In his civil war commentaries things are quite different in his own account Gardner argued in The Gallic War that the commentaries were written in one go in 52 BC, here she suggests that they were written in instalments and released to win the public relations battle So we see Bibulus burning ships their crews captured from Caesar p109 juxtaposed with Caesar making peace overtures to Pompey let us therefore spare both ourselves and Rome our own losses have given us proof of the power of fortune in war p110 and to make the contrast apparent Caesar uses an officer of Pompey who he has just captured for the second time as his messenger Interestingly though in the Spanish war continuation, which was not written by Caesar, the incivility of a civil war is there the hands of captured enemy soldiers are cut off and corpses used as a rampart to intimidate the opposition and a rampart is decorated with the decapitated heads of their comrades It has been said that Caesar s skill as a commander was in extricating himself from difficult situations that he had gotten himself into, and this seemsapparent here than in the Gallic wars Repeatedly Caesar arrives on scene with fewer troops than his opponent, often he runs short of supplies and I wondered repeatedly why he didn t wait or build up his fleet to transport the army in one go Temperamentally Caesar seems over active, even rash Suetonius in The Twelve Caesars records that once Caesar took on an enemy warship in a small boat, rowing out and demanding that they surrender which they did The anecdote is certainly true to his behaviour in these commentaries.Pompey is the mystery to me Perhaps he had no will to fight his former father in law, or maybe he wasn t confident in the quality of the troops he was raising, but he certainly seems to have conceded the initiative to Caesar for all his experience in war I wonder why he waited in Greece for a year while Caesar was defeating his forces in Spain surely this was the perfect opportunity to attempt to recapture Italy and Rome, and how else could one win a Roman civil war except by a successful march on Rome In this way the first part of the civil war comes a cross as a conflict between two states of mind Caesar, impulsive and active, against Pompey, who by contrast was resigned and passive This is vividly expressed in the battle of Pharsalus in which Pompey s battle plan is to have his troops and he has the larger army stand their ground while Caesar s advance on them thinking that they will be tired while his cavalry outflank them and hopefully win the day Caesar was mystified by this it appears to us that he did this without sound reason, for there is a certain eagerness of spirit and an innate keenness in everyone which is inflamed by desire for battle Generals ought to encourage this, not repress it nor was it for nothing that the practise began in antiquity of giving the signal on both sides and everyone s raising a war cry this was believed both to frighten the enemy and to stimulate one s own men p152 This can go to far Caesars troops eagerness gets them into trouble at Gergovia during the Gallic war, but here it works out even when the army rushes into combat at Thaspus before ordered to advance This could be all part of Caesar s public relations campaign my army are as irrepressible as racehorses while my opponents were defeated before they even got out of bed in the morning then again Caesar did win repeatedly so it wasn t all just propaganda.The emphasis on engineering is not as strong as in The Gallic War although part of a river is diverted in Spain to make a ford and some impressive seeming siege machines are built to capture Marseilles, but the importance of logistics I felt came throughclearly There is manoeuvring to cut off opponents from water, to place fortified positions to harass troops sent out to gather firewood, and to pressurise the opposition even before battle lines are drawn up.On one occasion the enemy retaliate in kind, when Ptolemaic forces were besieging Caesar in Alexandria they pump sea water into his water supply at first Caesar s men are confused why is our water suddenly salty until Caesar realises what a dastardly trick those Egyptian Greeks have played and sets his army to furiously digging wells to find an alternative water source What I really found interesting was the curious absence of suicide Reading Tacitus I got the impression that suicide was the epitome of Roman dignity and morality, that a citizen s worth was known by their ability to select the right moment to dispose of themselves efficiently By contrast here only Cato kills himself after Thaspus Every other commander seems happy, when circumstances require, to die in combat or to run away and fight again some other day no matter how crushing the defeat It seems that some change in cultural attitudes was taking place over this period Just a few years later Brutus and Cassius will kill themselves on the field of battle rather than to run and hide as Pompey s sons do after complete defeat at Munda.The first time I read this I had borrowed it from my local library It was a Carnegie Library view spoiler in fact this one, it s bigger in my memory, but I was smaller then hide spoiler and most Saturday mornings I would trot off up progressively nicer roads, past cherry trees and past one house that had a monkey puzzle tree quite probably the most incredible and alien living thing I saw in my youth in their front garden, with a small green satchel over my shoulder I was young, still in single figures, keen to regularly exchange my three library tickets for fresh reading and grabbed the volume of Caesar I remember being so overwhelmed by the story of Scaeva and his shield that had been pierced 120 times as he fought to hold off an attack by Pompey s army that I had to draw a picture of the shield with all 120 holes in it The paper probably showedhole than shield by the time I had finished One the same day Caesar s men collected 30,000 arrows that had been shot at their positions, I imagine them counting them out before their commander proud of their valour under fire I, II, III, IVCI, CII, CIIIMMMI, MMMII, MMMIIIenough counting to keep Sesame Street busy for many a year view spoiler I was going to add something about the practise of writing messages on lead sling shot which was then fired at the the enemy, there are a couple of examples in this book, but I can t find the feature to link to that I read about the discovery of some examples from Roman civil wars featuring ribald commentary on the sexual habits of the opposition s commanders hide spoiler I m sorry to disappoint romantics, but Cleopatra the VIIth to distinguish her from the many other Cleopatras in the family only gets mentioned once, briefly and very practically as she is left in charge with her younger brother after the death of Ptolemy XIII

  2. Darwin8u Darwin8u says:

    Men are nearly always willing to believe what they wishJulius CaesarWell behaved Romans seldom Make HistoryWar is hell obviously, but a civil war is a unique form of Hades a Haid s of many shaid s The sides areamorphous, permeable, ambiguous There is a reluctance to kill a soldier that last year you considered a friend or a brother While war often requires thinking beyond strategy and tactics, a civil war pushes those skills to the extreme How do you limit the blood lust of your Men are nearly always willing to believe what they wishJulius CaesarWell behaved Romans seldom Make HistoryWar is hell obviously, but a civil war is a unique form of Hades a Haid s of many shaid s The sides areamorphous, permeable, ambiguous There is a reluctance to kill a soldier that last year you considered a friend or a brother While war often requires thinking beyond strategy and tactics, a civil war pushes those skills to the extreme How do you limit the blood lust of your soldiers when they are confronting a group that might easily be conveyed into a future asset How do you break an opponent s spirit without destroying the enemy or turning them into an enemy How do you maintain a paid army s loyalty without pay How do you keep your friends from deserting you after a devastating loss Now, do all of this while still not alienating those fickle friends in Rome

  3. Jon Nakapalau Jon Nakapalau says:

    I am sure I would have enjoyed this book evenif only I brushed up on my Roman history But I still enjoyed the attention to detail that Caesar practiced and his magnanimity towards those he defeated Counting the times a shield was pierced by arrows as a sign of courageit should be a term we use to this day Check my shield, count the arrowsI did my best at the meeting.

  4. Brian Brian says:

    This book containsthan Caesar s writings on the Civil War The Alexandrian War , The African War , The Spanish War are also included in this Penguin Classics edition none of those pieces penned by him I only read the first piece, the appendices, and the insightful intro written by Jane Gardner also providing an excellent and easy to read translation I m happy that I first read Caesar s Gallic Wars getting a feeling for his writing style helped with this work, which I found a bi This book containsthan Caesar s writings on the Civil War The Alexandrian War , The African War , The Spanish War are also included in this Penguin Classics edition none of those pieces penned by him I only read the first piece, the appendices, and the insightful intro written by Jane Gardner also providing an excellent and easy to read translation I m happy that I first read Caesar s Gallic Wars getting a feeling for his writing style helped with this work, which I found a bitdry I came to both of these books by way of reading Vollmann s Rising Up and Rising Down I will admit my ignorance about JC other than the broadest of historical strokes it was very interesting to me to learn how much skill Caesar had in so many traits diplomat, general, orator, leader, politician, author But what was most interesting, and unexpected, was the tremendous amount of leniency and clemency he showed to vanquished foes especially fellow Roman citizens soldiers during the Civil War For JC, war was a means to an end the sooner those ends could be achieved, with the least amount of bloodshed and cause for vengeance, the quicker the empire could assimilate the territory and its denizens into the Roman hegemony.It was also helpful to have Wikipedia nearby to supplement the reading with detailed battle maps and expanded info on the partcipants in the narrative that JC mentions off hand there is a glossary of names at the end of the book, but it only offers the smallest amount of detail.Having Caesar s two major works under my belt I am now ready to return to Vollmann s RUaRD in 2014

  5. Tyler Windham Tyler Windham says:

    Alea iacta est the die is cast Julius Caesar upon crossing the Rubicon, according to Suetonius Caesar continues his narrative from the Bello Gallico into another several books of commentaries on his civil war with Pompey the Great and the Roman Senate Caesar does not dwell long on the causes of the civil war but rests that point upon saying that his rights and honor had been violated and his attempts to find a compromise and he did attempt were met with a declaration by the senate Alea iacta est the die is cast Julius Caesar upon crossing the Rubicon, according to Suetonius Caesar continues his narrative from the Bello Gallico into another several books of commentaries on his civil war with Pompey the Great and the Roman Senate Caesar does not dwell long on the causes of the civil war but rests that point upon saying that his rights and honor had been violated and his attempts to find a compromise and he did attempt were met with a declaration by the senate that he would be considered a traitor and force against him by Pompey who was extra legally made sole consul authorized should he not comply The commentaries follow in their usual style gripping and vivid, clean and descriptive that highlightof Caesar s brilliant tactics, his daring disposition to fortune fortune favors the bold after all , and his great clemency to his fellow Romans including allowing an entire army in Hispania to return home after surrendering their arms and pardoning Pompeian senator and commander he captured, even pardoning the same obstinate patriciansthan once he pardoned Cassius, the future chief conspirator behind his assassination, three times Ultimately, the Civil War ends with a delicious cliffhanger as one finds Caesar in Egypt after his climactic victory over Pompey in Greece, searching for his fugitive rival when he finds himself drawn into yet another war

  6. Brian Brian says:

    This lone star is not for Caesar, it is for this wretched translation After slogging through 70 or so pages feeling like my brain was coated in molasses, I decided to try a different translation Right choice.For example, here s how this volume translates a particular section He leaves no point unmentioned that he thought adapted their minds to sanity What a clunker Here s how the Penguin Classic translated by Jane Gardner has it He added such further considerations as he thought might s This lone star is not for Caesar, it is for this wretched translation After slogging through 70 or so pages feeling like my brain was coated in molasses, I decided to try a different translation Right choice.For example, here s how this volume translates a particular section He leaves no point unmentioned that he thought adapted their minds to sanity What a clunker Here s how the Penguin Classic translated by Jane Gardner has it He added such further considerations as he thought might serve to bring them to their senses Much better Even after restarting and 20 pages into this translation I feel like my mind has been squeegeed

  7. Jesse Jesse says:

    Caesar, through his own and others accounts, comes off as an unbelievably merciful general he pardoned nearly everyone that came into his power, including his eventual assassins, Cassius and Brutus I could only find one instance, concerning a certain Ligarius during the African War, where he executed a fellow citizen, but the soldier in question had been pardoned previously This book was written to detail the events of his face off with Pompey and when the latter was killed by the Egyptians Caesar, through his own and others accounts, comes off as an unbelievably merciful general he pardoned nearly everyone that came into his power, including his eventual assassins, Cassius and Brutus I could only find one instance, concerning a certain Ligarius during the African War, where he executed a fellow citizen, but the soldier in question had been pardoned previously This book was written to detail the events of his face off with Pompey and when the latter was killed by the Egyptians, Caesar was upset that he didn t get to pardon him , and it is written in high style Cicero described the commentaries as nude figures and, indeed, the ones written by Caesar are Unfortunately, Caesar was busy having sex with Cleopatra, so someone else wrote the account of the Alexandrian War not a nude figure in marble, but perhaps in clay Then, there is an account of the African War not even a clay figure this time,like a dirt figure Lastly, to close the collection, we have the Spanish War, which isn t even a figure it s just a pile of dirt unreadable Nevertheless, Caesar and his ghostwriters provide an invaluable, and for the most part enjoyable, linear history of how the dictator perpetuus secured his power abroad, only to return home and be betrayed by a couple of philosophers who completely failed to read the will of the people not to mention the will of Caesar he had left all his money to the people of Rome

  8. Michael Kaplan Michael Kaplan says:

    I first read the Illustrated Comic book series of this book and man when I was 11 or 12 In High School I chose Julius Caesar for my senior theme and although I am not a history buff in general the man and his times have a strange affect on my reading habits So much so that in the past 4 5 years I have collected 180 books, both Novel and biography regarding Caesar and the Roman Republic Maureen Mccullough s fictional Roman series was the clincher for me, so much so, that I also collect r I first read the Illustrated Comic book series of this book and man when I was 11 or 12 In High School I chose Julius Caesar for my senior theme and although I am not a history buff in general the man and his times have a strange affect on my reading habits So much so that in the past 4 5 years I have collected 180 books, both Novel and biography regarding Caesar and the Roman Republic Maureen Mccullough s fictional Roman series was the clincher for me, so much so, that I also collect rare books about Caesar Era including, 2 volumes by Napoleon Bonaparte.Even Caesar s contemporaries Giants themselves Cicero, etc thought his writing was the best that could be produced.His Civil War commentaries are still taught in Latin classes butimportantly for the contemporary reader his writing is clear, seemingly unfettered by flourishes, etc., descriptive of the countries and people he was conquering, even his admiration for some Rome s enemies It is alsothan it appears For while it reads as a war commentary by a general it is also, propaganda to build his 2 tiered voter base back in Rome The senate and the common people who voted him up the ladder from the lowest government position to sole Consul of Rome Although from one of the blue blood families he was the champion of the common man He was self aware of what he was doing at all times and why and the Civil War foreshadows the greatness to come.On another note this book reminds us that he who does not study history is doomed to repeat it the parallel of His times and ours is chilling

  9. Bruce Bruce says:

    Caesar s The Civil Wars covers the period in Roman history from 49 to 48 BCE, and its primary protagonists are Julius Caesar himself and his rival, Pompey It describes the early tensions between the two generals, culminating in Caesar s crossing of the Rubicon, and it ends with the murder of Pompey in Alexandria and with the events leading up to the Alexandrine War It includes Caesar s march on Rome and the early Hispanian campaign as well as the subsequent Greek and African campaigns Thus, i Caesar s The Civil Wars covers the period in Roman history from 49 to 48 BCE, and its primary protagonists are Julius Caesar himself and his rival, Pompey It describes the early tensions between the two generals, culminating in Caesar s crossing of the Rubicon, and it ends with the murder of Pompey in Alexandria and with the events leading up to the Alexandrine War It includes Caesar s march on Rome and the early Hispanian campaign as well as the subsequent Greek and African campaigns Thus, it covers the period of time during which Caesar consolidated his position and laid the groundwork for his elevation to the most prominent position in the Roman state.Many readers may befamiliar with Caesar s work, The Gallic Wars, often the first significant piece of literature taught in Latin classes The Civil Wars is intriguing in its political maneuvering as well as its military details, and, if sometimes various Roman personages are hard to keep straight, especially regarding which protagonist they were supporting, it is often because allegiances switched sides unexpectedly It is helpful, I found, to keep notes about each of the major players so that I could tell who was on each side In addition, the Loeb Classical Library edition that I used had helpful maps of some of the primary conflicts, clarifying what Caesar was describing.Readers unfamiliar with the broad sweep of Roman history and no knowledge of these couple of years may want to read a brief online summary that locates these events in a broader context Roman authors like Livy and Tacitus, to name only two of many, can also provide a long perspective that clarifies the importance of the civil wars in which Caesar played a pivotal role In any event, Caesar s prose is clear and straightforward, and he seems to make an effort not always to portray his own actions in the most favorable light, although as the winner of the conflict his military and political decisions will inevitably seem wiser than those of Pompey I found this book fascinating and most enjoyable The Latin is not too difficult to read, and over the length of the work the reader s facility will inevitably improve The dual language format of this edition enables the reader to check his translation and understanding, and if he wishes to avoid the mostly enjoyable labor of translating, he can simply read it in English in this translation by A.G Peskett

  10. R.M.F Brown R.M.F Brown says:

    An army marches on its stomachLike innumerable warlords before him, Napoleon Bonaparte recognised that logistics were the lifeblood of any military campaign Success or failure could hang by the thread of an adequate or inadequate level of supply Imagine Agincourt if Henry s men had exhausted their supply of arrows Consider Rourke s drift if the redcoats had frittered away their ammunition supply Essential though they are to the conduct of war, they are also as dry as the proverbial bone In An army marches on its stomachLike innumerable warlords before him, Napoleon Bonaparte recognised that logistics were the lifeblood of any military campaign Success or failure could hang by the thread of an adequate or inadequate level of supply Imagine Agincourt if Henry s men had exhausted their supply of arrows Consider Rourke s drift if the redcoats had frittered away their ammunition supply Essential though they are to the conduct of war, they are also as dry as the proverbial bone In the hands of a genius, such descriptions take on a life of their own Caesar s skill in warfare, oratory and diplomacy, is well known That he could write such vivid accounts of military campaigns and the logistical efforts behind them, is surely another string to his bow We read of troop movements, corn supplies, the construction of siege engines, the levy of troops, and occasionally, a pitched battle between Caesar s forces against those of his great rival, Pompey We gain insights into the machinations of Roman politics, and we see the genius of Caesar in recruiting men to his cause, the charisma and oratory skill in persuading men to fight to further his ambitions Generous to his supporters, firm, but fair to his defeated enemies, Caesar embodied Clausewitz s maxim that a benevolent conquer only has to conquer a populace once For a two thousand year old account, written in the third person, to be as engaging and engrossing as any major work of history, and to beentertaining than most works of historical analysis written in the modern era, is testament to Caesar s genius

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *