[Epub] ↠ An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation: Jeremy Bentham Author Jeremy Bentham – Thomashillier.co.uk

An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation: Jeremy Bentham An Introduction To The Principles Of Morals And Legislation Jeremy Bentham Jeremy Bentham, February June , Was An English Philosopher, Jurist, And Social Reformer He Is Regarded As The Founder Of Modern Utilitarianism Nature Has Placed Mankind Under The Governance Of Two Sovereign Masters, Pain And Pleasure It Is For Them Alone To Point Out What We Ought To Do, As Well As To Determine What We Shall Do On The One Hand The Standard Of Right And Wrong, On The Other The Chain Of Causes And Effects, Are Fastened To Their Throne They Govern Us In All We Do, In All We Say, In All We Think Every Effort We Can Make To Throw Off Our Subjection, Will Serve But To Demonstrate And Confirm It In Words A Man May Pretend To Abjure Their Empire But In Reality He Will Remain Subject To It All The While The Principle Of Utility Recognises This Subjection, And Assumes It For The Foundation Of That System, The Object Of Which Is To Rear The Fabric Of Felicity By The Hands Of Reason And Of Law Systems Which Attempt To Question It, Deal In Sounds Instead Of Sense, In Caprice Instead Of Reason, In Darkness Instead Of Light


10 thoughts on “An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation: Jeremy Bentham

  1. says:

    1879 1879


  2. says:

    I recently heard of the divide between splitters and lumpers in academia A splitter is an individual who prefers precise definitions and creates lots of categories and differentiation A lumper is an individual who takes a gestalt view of a definition and assumes that differences are not as important as signature similarities.Bentham is a classic splitter This book is about how to judge an act from a moral and legislative perspective As a utilitarian, Bentham believes we should judge I recently heard of the divide between splitters and lumpers in academia A splitter is an individual who prefers precise definitions and creates lots of categories and differentiation A lumper is an individual who takes a gestalt view of a definition and assumes that differences are not as important as signature similarities.Bentham is a classic splitter This book is about how to judge an act from a moral and legislative perspective As a utilitarian, Bentham believes we should judge acts on the amount of pleasure or benefit they generate compared to the amount of pain or loss He spends the book getting extremely detailed and raising issues around how exactly we perform the calculations To start, there are seven variables that go into calculating pleasure and pain 1 Its intensity 2 Its duration 3 Its certainty or uncertainty 4 Its propinquity or remoteness 5 Its fecundity 6 Its purity 7 Its extent that is, the number of persons to whom it extends or in other words who are affected by it.Then there are about 50 different kinds of pleasure and pain Then 30 different circumstances to take into account, such as the person s sex, age, and education, which may influence the actor s sensibility Then 16 secondary circumstances, such as strength of mind or moral biases Then 9 different classes of motives Etc Interesting to think about, especially if you are also a splitter


  3. says:

    Any first year law student would be acquainted with Criminal Law its theories, its punishments, its purpose Bentham s work was to systematize the English penal arena by creating check lists of behavior and motivations, dispositions, and consequences to arrive at a disinterested conclusion at trial for what is best for society Punishment for crime is punitive, not redemptive We ve become so alienated from the concept because the modern focus has been turned upon what is best to rehabilitate Any first year law student would be acquainted with Criminal Law its theories, its punishments, its purpose Bentham s work was to systematize the English penal arena by creating check lists of behavior and motivations, dispositions, and consequences to arrive at a disinterested conclusion at trial for what is best for society Punishment for crime is punitive, not redemptive We ve become so alienated from the concept because the modern focus has been turned upon what is best to rehabilitate the perpetrator Society is now condemned as the problem Legislators and judges would benefit society by being acquainted with this book That being said, this work soon is so tedious that it is a punishment for the reader Every possible permutation of every act, motive, intent, harm, etc is categorized, in order to promote Bentham s idea He pulverizes the dead horse


  4. says:

    Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation by Jeremy Bentham Review By Nandini Goel This Book provides a wide outlook of Bentham s teachings about Utilitarianism and his classification of pleasures and pains Then Bentham also classifies mischief and offences As we continue reading further Bentham discusses about its importance in Jurisprudence.In the first part of the book, Bentham discusses about the principle of Utility Utilitarianism has been Bentham s most ren Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation by Jeremy Bentham Review By Nandini Goel This Book provides a wide outlook of Bentham s teachings about Utilitarianism and his classification of pleasures and pains Then Bentham also classifies mischief and offences As we continue reading further Bentham discusses about its importance in Jurisprudence.In the first part of the book, Bentham discusses about the principle of Utility Utilitarianism has been Bentham s most renowned theory Utility is a property in any object whereby it tends to produce benefit, advantage, pleasure, good or happiness The principle of Utility approves or disapproves of every action whatsoever the tendency which it appears to have to augment or diminish the happiness of the party whose interest is in question Now how do you deduce that an action is accepted under the principle of utility or not Keep the pleasures on one side Keep the pains on another Now sum up the pleasures and the pains Check which side isIf the sum of pleasures is , then it was a balanced act, if less, then it was not a balanced one Now this process is questionable to me as some time a corrupt mind or immoral person can take this concept to his advantage Anyways this is a concept worth recognition.The principle of utility has been reprimanded by two classes of people moralists and religionists These two classes of people have given priority to human values and morals Here I would not keep my opinion about whose ideologies are better Kant or Bentham , for I believe I am in no power to do that smile Then Bentham discusses about the four sanctions or the source of pain and pleasure The four sanctions are physical, political, moral or unpopular and the religious sanction The circumstances that need to be taken into account while estimating the value of a pleasure or pain considered with reference to a single person are 1 Its intensity2 Its duration3 Its certainty or uncertainty4 Its propinquity or remoteness5 Its fecundity its chance to produce the same kind of feeling, either pleasure or pain 6 Its purity its chance of not producing the opposite kind of feeling, either pleasure or pain The circumstances that need to be taken into account while estimating the value of a pleasure or pain considered with reference to a community or a large set of people are the same as the above with one addition The Extent or the number of people to whom it extends or in other words who were affected by it.Bentham then discusses about the different kinds of Pleasure and Pains There are two types of Pains and Pleasures simple or complex Let me enlist a few Simple Pleasures first those Bentham mentions in his work 1 Pleasure of Sense The Pleasure exhibited by the body and the senses come under this category For example, the pleasure of the taste or palate, the pleasures of intoxication, pleasures of organ of smelling nose , pleasures of the ear, pleasures of the touch, simple pleasures of the eye and so on.2 Pleasures of wealth These pleasures include the pleasures a man derive from the consciousness of possessing any article or articles.3 Pleasures of Skill These accompany the application of such particular instruments of enjoyment to their uses, as cannot be so applied without a greater or less share of difficulty.4 Pleasures of amity Or self recommendation, derived when at good terms with someone, in a way to have the benefit of their spontaneous and gratuitous services.5 Pleasures of Good Name Can also be called, pleasures of good repute and pleasures of honor.6 Pleasures of Power Accompany the persuasion of a man s being in a condition to dispose people.7 Pleasures of Piety The belief of a man s being in the acquisition or in possession of the good will of the Supreme Being Usually seen in case of staunch religious believers.And a fewThe same way are the simple pains such as Pains of Privation which includes pain of desire, disappointment and regret , Pains of the Senses opposite of Pleasure of the senses , Pains of awkwardness, Pains of enmity, Pains of an ill name opposite of Pains of Good Name ,and Pains of piety and so on.Pleasures and Pain are either Self Regarding regarding the same person, or Extra Regarding regarding someone else.Then Bentham discusses The Consequences of a Mischievous Act There are two consequences of a mischievous act primary and secondary The primary consequences of a mischievous act include original consequences and derivative consequences The derivative consequences of a mischievous act include Alarm or Danger Let me explain these consequences further The Original Consequences are inflicted on the main sufferer of the mischievous act, on whom the pain was supposed to be rendered The derivative consequences are inflicted on the people connected directly to the sufferer Now coming to the Secondary Consequences the alarm is the feeling of alertness generated in the minds of the listeners of the story of the suffering Danger is the unsafe environment created after a mischievous act To lessen the danger in a surrounding, strict laws must be enforced so that no further mischievous act of the same kind is committed in future.To mark Deterrence.To judge an act few things must be kept in mind They are as follows 1 The Act Itself2 The Circumstances3 The intentional4 The Consciousness5 The Motives6 The DispositionBentham discusses that nothing is right or wrong as what is right today, might be wrong tomorrow Reminds of some factions of Indian National Congress during Pre Independence Era ,voiced same words smile , It depends on the disposition of a person which is derived from the motives of certain acts.Then Bentham discusses about the division of offences into certain classes They are as follows 1 Private Offence Offences those are detrimental, for an assignable person other than the offender Private Offences can be further divided into sub classes which are a Offences against persons b Offences against property c Offences against Condition d Offences against Person and Property e Offences against person and reputation2 Semi Public Offences These offences are those involving a part of the community These offences are better known as offence against neighbourhood or offence against a certain class of people in the society.3 Self Regarding Offences These offences are detrimental to the offender himself in the first instance.4 Public Offences These offences are detrimental to an infinite number of unassignable people in the society These include the following offences a Offences against Justice b Offences against external security c Offences against the preventive branch of Police d Offence against the positive increase of national felicity e Offences against the public force f Offences against the public wealth g Offences against the national security h Offences against sovereignty i Offences against religion 5 Multiform Offences These can be divided into two offences from falsehood and offences against trust These also have many sub classes Bentham discusses that the punishment of an offence should over weigh the profit of the offence Punishment he describes as the loss of pleasure Bentham discusses that there are a few instances where the judiciary should try to reduce the punishment These he describe as the cases which unmeet the punishment He describes punishment also as evil as the main goal of the government is the happiness of the people So in the following case must be excluded from punishment.Firstly, Cases in which punishment is groundless or where the act was not being mischievous upon the whole Secondly, cases in which punishment is inefficacious or where it cannot act as so prevent the mischief Third, Cases in which punishment is unprofitable or too expensive and Lastly, where punishment is needless.He also discusses that Judges should give punishment for the greater offence, where there are two offences so that in future, the greater offences of the two is less preferred and happens less often than the offence with lesser intensity.At the end, Jeremy Bentham discusses about Jurisprudence and how a judiciary should function It was indeed an interesting book with a new outlook for me One of the finest piece of understanding, I have read hitherto.I am sure why this book was considered importtant while understanding subject like Jurisprudence smile Regards Nandini GoelThank You to Prof Ranbir Singh for the Introduction


  5. says:

    I have completed this book What did I think Well I think I have read better foundational justifications for the interpretation of utility The moral and philosophical groundwork upon the metrics of which this system rest are somewhat shaky There is a general indeterminism in regards to what gives people pleasure Disregarding this criticism, and various others within the book, his findings as regards the moral sanction as being related to the well being of a nation are clear in order for his I have completed this book What did I think Well I think I have read better foundational justifications for the interpretation of utility The moral and philosophical groundwork upon the metrics of which this system rest are somewhat shaky There is a general indeterminism in regards to what gives people pleasure Disregarding this criticism, and various others within the book, his findings as regards the moral sanction as being related to the well being of a nation are clear in order for his at times needlessly mathematical utilitarian system to be well defined and rigorously applied, the idea of probity or beneficence needs to operate There is an equation which essentially sums up this work as a whole a b c da Motivation to actb Standing tutelary motivesc Strength of temptationd Situational tutelary motivesWhere a is the unknown If you read this book and you didn t see that equation, maybe it s because you don t read enough economics, haha I can tell you one thing for sure though, the system is not rigorous or defined enough for him to be making sweeping definite statements like that This is how the work is Bentham is a legislator He seems keen on making sweeping dogmatic statements Little references are made to other philosophers, although you can be certain he has read some Aristotle I thought this was a good work, if perhaps a little lackluster in the exposition and execution Like all mathematical economists though, his objective was to define a system for further findings to be discovered within He also developed his system to assist other legislators in their proceedings Regardless of the intention, his final book has left an indelible mark on the posterity of moral philosophy and will not be forgotten


  6. says:

    I had to read parts of this book for my Introduction to Political Thought class.


  7. says:

    I ve never felt so opposed to a book which I normally enjoy yet somehow each line I read contributed to the accumulation of acid that was filling my stomach I could only see as I went through the text the misinterpretation of opposition to materialism the mundane vice, how big or short the ideology is irrelevant but completely different to denial of pleasure and what is pleasure but a single word defined by each individual s understanding of what life should be Consequently isn t he shrink I ve never felt so opposed to a book which I normally enjoy yet somehow each line I read contributed to the accumulation of acid that was filling my stomach I could only see as I went through the text the misinterpretation of opposition to materialism the mundane vice, how big or short the ideology is irrelevant but completely different to denial of pleasure and what is pleasure but a single word defined by each individual s understanding of what life should be Consequently isn t he shrinking the complexity and the beauty that comes with it as well as judging the concept of some to the source of happiness, mainly by those who might call it wholeness I would ve expected the book to be an argumentative reading to question and better understand utilitarianism, exploiting its weakest points to strengthen the philosophy that if not exclusive, complementary to what could be, instead of what seemed to me like a divine proclamation of what is


  8. says:

    A bit dense as suspected, hence the time I spent working through it Nevertheless, the foundations laid out here, in depth, provide a massive resource for so many critical questions surrounding utilitarianism, in both practice and theory The distinction laid out between motivation and intention was just one fascinating example.


  9. says:

    It is basically about the Principle of utility greater Pleasure than pain when applied to actions of individual and government He applied his Principle of Utility to Ethics, Law, Social Actions and so on to calculate their action whether moral or not.


  10. says:

    Remarkably CompleteAs an attempt to create a unified theory of law by cataloging the causes of, needs for, and nature of laws in society this work is quite successful.