The Earth As Modified By Human Action ePUB ✓ The


    The Earth As Modified By Human Action ePUB ✓ The not observed to be the fact, and, though the point is disputed, respectable authorities declare that wood felled in the depth of winter is the heaviest and fullest of sap."/>
  • Paperback
  • The Earth As Modified By Human Action
  • George Perkins Marsh
  • English
  • 03 July 2019
  • 1419160516

10 thoughts on “The Earth As Modified By Human Action

  1. Dan Dan says:

    As soon as multiplying man had filled the open grounds along the margin of the rivers, the lakes, and the sea, and sufficiently peopled the natural meadows and savannas of the interior, where such existed,he could find room for expansion and further growth, only by the removal of a portion of the forest that hemmed him in The destruction of the woods, then, was man s first geographical conquest, his first violation of the harmonies of inanimate nature.George Marsh is considered one of our count As soon as multiplying man had filled the open grounds along the margin of the rivers, the lakes, and the sea, and sufficiently peopled the natural meadows and savannas of the interior, where such existed,he could find room for expansion and further growth, only by the removal of a portion of the forest that hemmed him in The destruction of the woods, then, was man s first geographical conquest, his first violation of the harmonies of inanimate nature.George Marsh is considered one of our country s earliest environmentalists He was born in 1801 in Woodstock Vermont and as he grew up he became troubled by what he saw as Vermont s forests were first logged and then the landscape was overrun by sheep He wrote and presumably spoke, with some admiration, of how uncivilized peoples lived for thousands of years while causing very little damage to the environment Marsh saw civilization, unrestrained populations and masses as a major part of the problem and pointed to what happened to the landscape in Europe indicating that it would happen here in America if measures were not taken.Marsh completed this science focused treatise on man s interaction with nature in 1864 Much of the focus of the book is on impacts to the environment in Europe and the Ottoman Empire He did serve as Ambassador to Italy and to the Ottoman Empire which explains his prodigious knowledge of those areas.Marsh speaks of species extinction, water pollution, draining of wetlands, and forest depletion and the need to plant trees Good early insights into conservation While Thoreau spoke eloquently of the effect of nature on our collective psyche, Marsh s writing focuses on historical detail regarding man s assault on nature with little nostalgia Marsh s home in Vermont is now a National Historic Site run by the National Park Service and I had the opportunity to visit a number of years ago It is a very large site in the woods that is dedicated to conservation and a kind of pilgrimage for environmentalists Along with the homestead it is one of the prettiest landmarks that I ve visited in the Northeast 4 stars Well written for the era of 1864 Heavy on facts and admittedly a dry read in portions The depth of Marsh s knowledge and his observations make it clear that he saw with great clarity many of the same environmental problems that haunt us today


  2. Richard Reese Richard Reese says:

    In 1864, George Perkins Marsh published Man and Nature, the book that was the granddaddy of the modern ecology movement Marsh was the U.S Minister to Italy, and while overseas, he visited the sites of many ancient civilizations This was a troubling and mind expanding experience for him.Wandering through the realms of extinct civilizations, he realized that they were all victims of self destruction Marsh saw ancient seaports that were now 30 miles 48 km from the sea He saw ancient places w In 1864, George Perkins Marsh published Man and Nature, the book that was the granddaddy of the modern ecology movement Marsh was the U.S Minister to Italy, and while overseas, he visited the sites of many ancient civilizations This was a troubling and mind expanding experience for him.Wandering through the realms of extinct civilizations, he realized that they were all victims of self destruction Marsh saw ancient seaports that were now 30 miles 48 km from the sea He saw ancient places where the old streets were buried beneath 30 feet 9 m of eroded soil He stood in mainland fields, 15 miles 24 km from the sea, which used to be islands.He saw the sites of ancient forests, formerly covered with three to six feet 1 2 m of soil, where nothing but exposed rock remained He learned that the removal of protective trees and vegetation led to the loss of topsoil He learned that irrigation often led to salinization the soil became so salty that it was rendered infertile.There wasn t much left of the formerly healthy ecosystems of the Mediterranean basin or the Fertile Crescent places that once supported large thriving cities With few exceptions, the modern population in these ravaged lands was far less than the population two thousand years ago Most of the big ancient cities were either abandoned ghost towns, or desolate shadows of their former grandeur.In the realm of the former Roman Empire,than half of the lands were deserted, desolate, or greatly reduced in productivity Forests were gone, much topsoil had been lost, springs had dried up, and rivers had shrunk into brooks Fertile lowlands had become malarial swamps One unforgettable section in the book described in rich detail the arrival of farmers and herders in the French Alps They had been driven into the mountains by population pressure They whacked down the trees and then turned their livestock loose The grazing animals stripped the land of all grass, and pulverized the scorched soil with their hooves.Without forest or grass, the land could retain little water When the wet season came, the water promptly ran off, taking the soil with it Tiny creeks turned into roaring torrents, and entire fields and villages were suddenly washed away Some places were reduced to bare bedrock wastelands.For example The land slip, which overwhelmed, and covered to the depth of seventy feet, the town of Plurs in the valley of the Maira, on the night of the 4th of September, 1618, sparing not a soul of a population of 2,430 inhabitants, is one of the most memorable of these catastrophes, and the fall of the Rossberg or Rufiberg, which destroyed the little town of Goldau in Switzerland, and 450 of its people, on the 2nd of September, 1806, is almost equally celebrated Marsh summed it up It is, in general, true, that the intervention of man has hitherto seemed to insure the final exhaustion, ruin, and desolation of every province of nature which he has reduced to his dominion The instances are few, where a second civilization has flourished upon the ruins of an ancient culture, and lands once rendered uninhabitable by human acts or neglect have generally been forever abandoned as hopelessly irreclaimable Marsh was from Vermont, where ambitious Americans were working furiously to replace forests with farms, and villages with industrial cities There were still vast numbers of passenger pigeons, which migrated in flocks so numerous that they were whole days in passing a given point He thought that farmers spurred their numbers by providing them with abundant grain to nibble on, and by waging genocide on their natural predators, the hawks Farmers hated hawks because they often snatched their chickens without paying for them.He was also amazed by the abundance of salt water fish It does not seem probable that man, with all his rapacity and all his enginery, will succeed in totally extirpating any salt water fish He could not foresee the arrival of industrial fishing, because he could not imagine human foolishness growing to such magnitude.In Europe, he could observe the ruins of many civilizations, and note that this was how most experiments in agriculture ended In America, he observed the same process in its infancy Marsh was painfully aware that all of the worst mistakes made in the Old World were being imported to America, with similar effects.The destruction of Old World civilizations had taken centuries, but Americans had all the latest technology, and their ability to ruin the land was farefficient Loggers were busy harvesting lumber in the mountains of New York Hunters were busy driving the passenger pigeons to extinction Farmers were destroying the vast healthy grasslands It was not difficult to accurately predict the consequences of this madness.The Western world was out of its mind with Perpetual Growth Fever, and everyone cheered for skyrocketing prosperity nothing waswonderful The fever continues to rage today Marsh lamented, The fact that, of all organic beings, man alone is to be regarded as essentially a destructive power He realized that he was living in a world gone mad He could very clearly see a horror show that the rest of society denied and disregarded.Marsh was a brilliant outside the box thinker who was fully present in reality He caredabout the vitality of the ecosystem than for temporary bursts of prosperity He had a spiritual connection to life He radiated intense common sense He sincerely believed that it would be wise to learn from our mistakes, rather than endlessly repeat them He thought that it would be wrong to remain on a path that would inevitably transform America into a wasteland.In 2007, friends in California s redwood country were hammered by floods Loggers, who were working upstream, vigorously denied that the floods had anything whatsoever to do with their recent clear cuts It was a pure coincidence Amazingly, the loggers were not seized by angry mobs and lynched for spewing such colossal lies They got away with their crime because the education system has utterly failed to provide society with a competent understanding of ecology and sustainability.Marsh did a decent job of providing readers with the ABC s of ecology Many years have passed since the first edition of Man and Nature was published For the most part, his book has survived the test of time, and remains valid and important But almost no high school or university graduates or their instructors would recognize Marsh s name, or be able to intelligently discuss the history of logging, agriculture, topsoil destruction, and the fatal flaws of civilization essential subjects that every citizen should understand in elementary school


  3. Mari Mari says:

    Man and Nature was first published in 1864, so some of its ecological ideas are understandably dated Yet Marsh s prose is enjoyable especially the footnotes and his concern with the extent of the changes produced by human action in the physical conditions of the globe we inhabit 3 was prescient.


  4. Lura Landon Lura Landon says:

    I m still reading this, but I think I m going to have to buy it because it is taking too long as a library book Good insights already into humanity s intent on altering landscapes and the environment for our own gain.


  5. Kazaan Kazaan says:

    This guy was talking about the dangers of global warming and deforestation in 1864 Boy, are we slow to catch on.


  6. David David says:

    I found this book quite interesting, yet it was not the easiest one to finish Marsh s writing style is very rich and some sentences seem to go on forever The central ideas of the book are however quite clearly stated While some theories mentioned in the book and belonging to the general knowledge of the time are obviously outdated, it still contains many valuable ideas, observations, and hypotheses This is a well documented book to say the least.I would recommend Man and Nature because Mar I found this book quite interesting, yet it was not the easiest one to finish Marsh s writing style is very rich and some sentences seem to go on forever The central ideas of the book are however quite clearly stated While some theories mentioned in the book and belonging to the general knowledge of the time are obviously outdated, it still contains many valuable ideas, observations, and hypotheses This is a well documented book to say the least.I would recommend Man and Nature because Marsh paints a timeless picture about human intervention in nature and its consequences Our encroachments upon nature continue in the same improvident way as they always have, therefore the message in this book may be as relevant today as it was back in the day it was written


  7. Stephen M. Theriault Stephen M. Theriault says:

    Vermont native gives a prescient explanation and analysis of the natural world and the physical, ecological and philosophical effects of man s civilization on its health and continued vitality Way ahead of his time.


  8. Faye Faye says:

    I wanted to read George Perkins Marsh s, a famous Vermonter, most well known book as it is considered to have been a significant contribution to the conservation movement He documents the destruction of several environments but believe mankind could restore them Marsh promoted management of nature and did not consider the human species to be part of the natural world.


  9. Lauren Lauren says:

    If anyone finds this book, please let me know The liberry dunna have it


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The Earth As Modified By Human Action[Reading] ➷ The Earth As Modified By Human Action Author George Perkins Marsh – Thomashillier.co.uk There can be no doubt that moisture is given, out by trees and evaporated in extremely cold winter weather, and unless new fluid were supplied from the roots by the exercise of some vital function, th There can be no doubt that As Modified Kindle × moisture is given, out by trees and evaporated in extremely The Earth eBook Ç cold winter weather, and unless new fluid were supplied from the roots by the exercise of some Earth As Modified MOBI õ vital function, the tree would be exhausted of its juices before winter was over But this is not observed to be the fact, and, though the point is disputed, respectable authorities declare that wood felled in the depth of winter is the heaviest and fullest of sap.


About the Author: George Perkins Marsh

George Perkins Marsh was an American As Modified Kindle × diplomat and philologist and is considered by some to be The Earth eBook Ç America s first environmentalist and the precursor to the sustainability concept, although conservationist would beaccurate.